For example, one child dies every three seconds as a result of poverty, hunger or similar causes, which makes an average of 10,000 children mortalities every day. (Recent UNICEF report.) Orphan ministry seeks to build momentum for change in the lives of at-risk children and orphans by partnering with like-minded individuals, groups, churches Another dimension of social exclusion is some locally held beliefs and superstitious ideas. Despite all well-intended efforts, however, some of these children are at a high risk of becoming victims of exploitation, abuse and violence.. , Moreover, children and orphans who are victims of war are targeted by human traffickers, organ mafias and other malicious organizations operating on border lines with a huge flow of refugees. Research has shown that 40 million children under the age of 15 are victims of abuse and neglect in war zones and that these children need regular health and social care. Approximately 20% will find adequate work. When poverty, disability and orphanhood in warzones are brought into the equation, the schooling rate of these children and their academic success are significantly reduced. Even if the above-cited threats to children in this category are tackled, assimilation policies in destination countries for migrants represent another lifelong risk for these children. Another study found that 1 in 3 children exiting residential care become homeless, 1 in 5 gain a criminal record, and as many as 1 in 10 die by suicide. “This rapid reintegration of children back to their birth families or extended family has many challenges,” said Christopher Muwanguzi, CEO of Child’s i Foundation. It is children that are most severely affected by the chronic poverty in these countries. To ensure the safety of all children, especially orphans and abandoned children, governments should initiate awareness-raising campaigns supported by the work of non-governmental organizations that reach out to individuals; while aid organizations that rely on a volunteering workforce should enhance their scope of impact by setting themselves up more strategically on larger territories. In the asylum process it is very important to give priority to children through “child-friendly treatment” procedures, and their swift identification and registration by trained personnel. Poor health infrastructure is one of the most frequent causes of death for parents in economically underdeveloped countries. For example, earthquakes cause children to become orphans in countries like Indonesia, Iran and Nepal while in African countries it is usually drought and famine. While social orphanhood can be as severe as orphanhood from loss of parents, it may cause some other serious psychological consequences. The latest UNICEF numbers for 2012 indicate that there are an estimated 153,000,000 orphans worldwide. , An analysis of the common characteristics of countries with the lowest levels of education reveals that these are poverty and war zones. Their orphanages had closed because of the coronavirus outbreak. , It is accepted that there is a direct link between the absence of parents and academic success. These children have their chance of a decent life taken away from them, either ending up in armed groups or having to work as child laborers under extremely difficult conditions.  Although the war in Afghanistan that has gone on for years has ended, 42% of the country's school-age children are still unable to go to school. It is estimated that most of these children are abducted by criminal organizations.. In India, only 41% of births are registered, with diseases and outbreaks caused by social inequality, poverty and other social problems that arise due to the strict caste system being considered the primary reason for the high population of orphans in the country. Wars or conflicts are among the leading causes of orphanhood. There are many orphans, i.e. Biblical Archaeology’s Top 10 Discoveries of 2020, Complete access to articles on ChristianityToday.com, Over 120 years of magazine archives plus full access to all of CT’s online archives. The available data show that most of the countries where the situation is most worrying are in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia.. In EU countries where there are many institutions responsible for unaccompanied refugee children, these institutions play an important role in meeting the basic needs of children and in planning and implementing the work necessary for social adjustment. Browse 60+ years of magazine archives and web exclusives. 20th April; World Orphans Day! One study found that children lose approximately one month of development for every three months they spend in institutional care. But the sudden closure of orphanages is not necessarily good news. It is also estimated that the majority of children deprived of education are either orphans or abandoned by their parents.. At this point, it is of great importance to increase the number of special education establishments and well-trained qualified teachers, to make the physical conditions of the schools suitable for the disabled and to provide adequate materials and medical support. All children have basic rights in terms of the provision of necessary conditions for protection, survival and development. CTWeekly delivers the best content from ChristianityToday.com to your inbox each week. Read more EDUCATION . Many orphans around the world are exploited as cheap labor when they are forced to fend for themselves. Top 15 Orphan Podcasts You Must Follow in 2020. This shows that humanitarian aid organizations working in crisis regions should focus not only on orphans’ shelter and nutritional needs, but they should also provided these orphans with protection, psychological support, treatment and rehabilitation. Considering all these cases, the actual number of orphans around the world is estimated at 400 million..  It is estimated that more than 13 million children worldwide were orphaned by this virus..  One third of the children in Kenya, where there are almost 3 million orphans, were orphaned because of this disease. World Orphans Day 2020. Turkey-Russia Relations: The Fluctuations Between Historical Hostility and Strategic Partnership, Post-Trump Assessments and Pre-Biden Expectations in the Western Balkans, The Privatization of Intelligence: The Black Cube Case, A Dilemma; Chinese Influence in Kazakhstan and East Turkestan. The protection of children, especially orphans, is one of the most fundamental tasks of societies. Our research is dedicated to extending humanitarian relief, enhancing humanitarian diplomacy and advancing the human rights. Get the best from CT editors, delivered straight to your inbox! Since these countries are the least developed in the world, lack of resources/means to provide basic services like education creates severe consequences that linger for generations. Psychological destruction through the loss of one or both parents can lead to a withdrawal, while discriminatory treatment by relatives, peers or the society can lead to self-isolation. “There are 12 children in this home, so we […] Missing Child Refugees. , In addition to all these official data, it is known that many children around the world are not registered as "orphans" for various reasons. Speaking Out is Christianity Today’s guest opinion column and (unlike an editorial) does not necessarily represent the opinion of the magazine. Dr. Tom DiFilipo, CEO of the Joint Council Of International Children's Service, points the finger at bureaucracy and said the first step is pushing for legislation to get an accurate count of how many kids need homes. Some returned to unsafe situations due to the lack of assessment and monitoring. Furthermore, it is crucial for orphans and their families to increase the number of educational institutions, especially in warzones, and to provide the essential elements for quality education and employ specialized psychologists in these institutions. The concept of social orphanhood was coined in relation to children suffering from parental negligence. In this context, it will be an important step to establish financial and moral support centers that all people can easily access. It is certain, however, that unaccompanied children who, due to their separation from their families, need to be registered and accepted duly, need special protection, special care and support. At this point, it is not enough to deal only with orphanhood, which is merely a consequence. 61 million orphans on the Asian continent that has the worst track record of protecting children's rights, are at risk of leading a totally vulnerable life. According to internationally accepted figures, there are at least 140 million orphans in the world. Since the risks and threats that children without parents face apply to all children who are unprotected for some reason, it is important to provide protection for all these children. World + 17 more. Orphan population: 3.1 million It is estimated that out of more than three million orphans living in Tanzania, up to 1.8 million lost parents due to AIDS. Social collaboration for rehab work will have a lasting effect on children and therefore contribute to reducing cases of social exclusion and violence. Orphans and are barely able to maintain a decent standard of living, leaving them exposed to risks and dangers. Last Updated Dec 18, 2020 ... About Podcast There are many children in the world growing up in institutions, who are available for adoption and need to be adopted. To allow efficient and extensive work on orphans, it is essential that all related government and non-government institutions cooperate more closely. One of the most devastating consequences of war for children is the issue of child soldiers. Chiang Mai's blooming lovely. , It is stated that with the launch of the operation the number of applications for adoption in the US and other western countries increased. Of these three, there are, roughly, 0.5 million orphans in China, 20 million orphans in India, and 17,000 orphans in South Korea. When a child loses either of his parents or both, he faces so many economic and mental issues down the line. It was established that more than 91% of the adopted children were younger than eight, that 51% were younger than two, that 57% of the children were boys, 43% girls and 20% mixed race. The number of missing children that went into the records in the 20 years from 1987 to 2007 is 1 million. Many will be surprised that orphans have homes and families to go to. Italy is followed by Germany with 29% (9,100), Greece with 8% (2,500), United Kingdom with 7% (2,200), Austria with 4% (1,400), Sweden with 4% (1,300) and Netherlands with 4% (1,200). Publications on the sacredness of adopting children, the travels of world-famous artists and actresses to Africa and Asia who adopt children themselves during these travels coupled with the media promote the adoption of foreign children.  Many children throughout Africa also died from this virus, transmitted by their parents. She also prayed for more blessings on EYN and the donors.  It was found that 74% of orphans in Zimbabwe and 63% of orphans in South Africa were also orphaned by the HIV disease. Becoming a refugee or being placed in the care of foster parents in other countries is one of the most serious problems faced by orphans. An institution that used to house a couple hundred children has been repurposed and the staff have been retrained to care for thousands of children by supporting them with their families. And it remains a total mystery what happened to these 7 million children. About 500,000 people lose their lives and millions of people suffer great financial losses every year due to disasters. Many “graduates” will become homeless, alone and lacking the education necessary to provide for themselves. Disabilities can be congenital, or caused by accidents, diseases or natural disasters and wars. In June 2019, an 8-year-old girl with cerebral palsy in Nanjing was thrown into a river by her father and grandfather. One of the most devastating consequences of these disasters is without doubt the thousands of vulnerable children left behind. Another common cause is chronic illness or disease outbreaks. The 153 million orphans worldwide are mostly living with families, not in an orphanage or other institution, he told HuffPost Live.  31,400 of them were registered as unaccompanied minors. A lack of official figures on international child transfers today raises serious questions about the scale of the whole operation. In summary, for the well-being and development of societies, all children should be raised in a nurturing environment and receive a good education. For the future of societies, it is vital that orphans, who may suffer irreparable losses if left at the mercy of the wrong people, are looked after. However, this is not an accurate observation. Sadly, there are more than 140 million orphans throughout the world. Today thousands of children are in European countries without their families or legal guardians. In short, due to missing or multiple registrations, registration in more than one country and city, lack of personal information and identification, no real information on the missing children population is available. [A15] In view of the fact that these figures are included in reports drawn up before the ongoing Syrian and Yemeni civil wars, it is estimated that the current figures are much higher. 143,000,000 ORPHANS: It is estimated that between 143,000,000 and 210,000,000 children are orphans. In view of its causes and effects, it can be argued that the issue of social orphanhood affects the entire society with political, social and religious implications requiring a holistic approach. Whereas social orphans are more common in relatively developed and western countries. What countries with a high number of orphans have in common is that they belong to the category of the most underdeveloped countries. When Christmas comes around, many of us will be celebrating it with family. Many are finding ways to offer family-based care using fostering and domestic adoption routes for those genuinely unable to live with relatives. More than 610,000 refugee children receive education in Turkey, both at schools operated by the Ministry of Education, and at establishments established by Syrian educators. Research indicates that institutions are not the best place for children to flourish and that the bonds of family are as important as access to education, food, and clothing for children to thrive. 1,400 orphans in S.F. While this does not mean that all the children in question have gone missing, irregular record-keeping has made it impossible to keep track of these children. How many orphans are there in the world? Research shows that children with disabilities are four or five times more likely to suffer physical and sexual abuse than their peers. At least half the population of these countries lives below the poverty line. A study by the World Health Organization shows that suicide-related deaths for children between the ages of 10 and 19 have increased since 2002. The number of orphans and abandoned children in the world is increasing day by day due to natural or man-made causes. The number of orphans in the world is increasing due to problems such as wars and conflicts, natural disasters, epidemics, poverty and mass migration. Targeting schools in wars and conflicts costs the lives of thousands of children and educational staff. These children are therefore exposed to the risk of falling into the snare of malicious organizations that seek to exploit children for purposes of prostitution, drug trafficking or organ trafficking . For it should be remembered that children without access to safe and healthy environments grow up to become problematic adults, leading to other serious social problems. It depicts a foster family. It is known that these criminal organizations also resort to violence and abuse to get their payments. Children are used as warriors and suicide bombers on the fields in conflicts and wars and also as couriers, spies, human shields and etc. 50,8 millions de déplacés internes dus aux conflits, à la violence et aux catastrophes, un record Source.  In this process, it was noted that the share countries allocate from their domestic income for education increased along with a more positive approach to education in general. National strategies should be determined by focusing on the rights of orphans with disabilities and concrete action for their protection. It is estimated that there are 4.9 million orphans in Bangladesh and 4.4 million orphans in Pakistan, which are also countries on the Asian continent.  Because there is great uncertainty over in what country, under what conditions and under whose control these children lost on migration routes are held. Evidence of idol worship, evil kings, and Christian churches add to our understanding of the world of the Bible. , Today, the term babylift is a concept used to describe international adoption programs. Just a little over a year since its founding, it has had to take in 86 orphans, including 18 infants. Full report from outside investigation to be released in January. In Syria that has 11 million inhabitants, 3 million out of 8 million school-age children do not attend school.  These figures clearly show that the traumas of childhood and adolescence, words which are not supposed to be used side by side with the word suicide, are not temporary, contrary to assumptions. Education is one of the most problematic areas for orphans and abandoned children. The Orphan Drug Fact File 2020 is delivered as: PDF Analysis Report: Organized by therapy area, and with easy-to-read charts, tables and figures, the report identifies market trends, the designation status, conditions being targeted in 12 key therapy areas, the leading developers and the … The European Commission estimates that the majority of unaccompanied refugee children disappeared before their asylum application or during the asylum procedure. Humanitarian and Social Research Center (INSAMER) is a hub conducting and promoting critical and relevant research on key humanitarian, social and political issues. , The fact that institutions in some EU countries, particularly Italy and Greece, were not prepared for large-scale refugee flows has led to unaccompanied refugee children being overlooked and denied access to adequate protection, housing and asylum procedures. All this clearly shows that one must be careful about missionaries or organizations that wish to change the beliefs and cultures of orphans via foster family system. According to 2016 data, the number of refugee children under 18 years of age is 28 million; this figure is estimated to have increased by at least 50% in 2020. The lack or absence of medical facilities further exacerbates the grievances of children in such vulnerable situations. In this context, it is very important for governments to develop effective social policies to protect the legal rights of children and enable them to grow in a healthy and safe environment. A decision by certain western groups who had been working with orphans in this country for more than 20 years during the Vietnam War to urgently evacuate children from South Vietnam underlies the Baby Rescue Operation. Studies show that such abuses increase by 40% in wartime environments.. These figures for the seven countries of the European Union (EU) represent 90% of registered child asylum seekers throughout Europe. Big migration movements caused by war, poverty etc. Thousands of children who lose their lives are registered as civilian victims, while hundreds of thousands try to stay alive, one way or another. Orphans in Tanzania, as in other place… Each year these numbers keep rising, but according to the U.S. Department of State, in 2017, only 4,714 children from other countries found a forever home in the United States.  In Ethiopia, another country on the continent, there are 6 million orphans. Amounting to a state of parental destitution, the condition is referred to as social orphanhood. As these countries have no policy of birth registration, it is estimated that the actual number of orphans that are referred to as “invisible children” is much higher than the projected figures. The current study is designed to draw attention to the plight of orphans and unprotected children that make up the most fragile members of society, and to shed a light on the global situation of orphans from different perspectives. It is also important to identify and eliminate the causes that lead to this social phenomenon. First and foremost; however, the gravity of the problem must be understood by all sections of society. In the past year, 764 children in Yemen, 438 in Iraq, 361 in Syria, 178 in the Democratic Republic of Congo and 75 in Sudan were disabled due to conflict. Despite the challenges of the pandemic, expressions of believers Being the Light for vulnerable children spanned all walks of life around the globe. The Global Orphan Project exists to break the orphan cycle through the power of community, commerce and the love of Jesus. In the Ukraine, 42,000 children in institutions were returned to their families in the same time frame, according to the International Leadership and Development Center, a child welfare charity in Kiev. Research shows that about 1.2 million children are trafficked every year. Investments in this area have produced positive results and the majority of the disabled population has reached a secondary education level, a step up from primary school. Suddenly moving in with relatives after being separated for extended lengths of time can be a challenging transition both for children and their caregivers. The majority of orphaned children are parental orphans, followed by maternal, while 1.1 percent of all orphans lost both parents. 5 May 2020.  53% of the 61 million children of primary school age (6-11 years) who cannot attend school are girls. Such children can easily fall into the clutches of criminal gangs in exchange for basic needs such as shelter and food or to satisfy emotional needs, like a sense of belonging. Children struggling with problems such as illness, hunger, disability or abduction are exposed to all kinds of abuse under wartime conditions. Humanitarian crises resulting from natural disasters are foremost among the reasons for children losing their parents. But the Bible Brings Hope. , According to the report of the United Nations Development Programme, the percentage of those who receive only basic education or learn to read and write in a non-educational setting are as follows: Southern Sudan and Mali 27%, Afghanistan 28%, Ethiopia 49%, Haiti 52%, Pakistan 55%, Bangladesh 57%. On the African continent, Nigeria is one of the worst affected countries with 17.5 million orphans. In 1990, Tim Baker up and moved his family from the United States to China.T hirty years later, he has become affectionately known as “foreign dad” to 4,000 orphans, of which 95 percent were children with disabilit ies.. Natural disasters vary in size and severity, causing different amounts of damage. It is vital that all institutions entrusted with these children do their share of work properly, as it is crucial for the future of the country and the world to identify and rehabilitate potential groups that could turn into a social anomie in the future. Today, adoption from overseas is considered an industry, leading to the kidnapping of children, under false pretenses, from countries such as Ethiopia, Cambodia, Somali, Chad, Afghanistan, China, and the Philippines. It is estimated that at least one tenth of the refugee children in the world are orphans. In the Islamic tradition, a paternal orphan is a child who has lost a father while a maternal orphan is a child who has lost a mother. No one knows yet what happened to the 10,000 children that migrated to Europe in the last 5 years, most of whom were orphans, raising serious questions about the fortunes of these orphans. Every child who goes through this most critical phase of life without enjoying parental care is considered an orphan. It is also known that more than 15 million children around the world have become refugees and that and almost 10 million children suffer severe trauma as a consequence.. 80% of these deaths occurred in Islamic countries. September 9, 2020 CNA Daily News News Briefs 0 Print. While it is not possible to prevent children from becoming orphans and vulnerable, so much can be done to reduce factors causing orphanhood. Christians have a pivotal role in making sure things don’t go back to business as usual. It is common knowledge that such kidnapped children are sold for cash all around the globe, including in many countries in Europe and the Americas. Some of these orphans have lost one parent, some both, and some are “virtual” orphans that have been turned out onto the streets by their families, but all are vulnerable and in need of help. Social orphanhood might occur due to irresponsible parents, social and family problems, extra-marital births, early or unwanted motherhood and many other factors… Mental health problems, domestic violence, drug and alcohol addiction, physical and mental disability, poverty, heavy work conditions, working away from the family, socializing outside the home, internet and social media addiction can also lead to a deterioration of family ties and children becoming isolated. Similar mass movements of orphans back to their families have been reported in Uganda and India. , As girls are mostly deployed away from the front lines, it is generally assumed that they do not take part in conflicts. According to the United Nations, 263 million children and young people worldwide cannot attend school or receive education. The current circumstances threaten children's rights to life. 40 million children under the age of 15 are victims of abuse and neglect in war zones and that these children need regular health and social care. While orphans are exposed to the dangers of the war environment, they have serious problems in accessing basic needs, especially food, shelter, health, security and education; while at the same time facing various social, economic and psychological challenges. Christians supporting these kinds of repurposing initiatives, where more children can be supported in more effective and sustainable ways, could be leading the way into a future without the need for orphanages anywhere in the world. In 2018 alone almost 100,000 people died in armed clashes, and tens of thousands of children became orphans or were deprived of parental care in the process. It is widely acknowledged that churchgoers and those with faith have historically been the most generous donors and the most frequent visitors to orphanages, driven by a desire to help children and make a difference in the world. The human rights COVID-19 world News 23 Dec 2020 of these children are engaged in labor... Children 's rights to life, hunger, disability or abduction are to... Of over 150,000 Armenian orphans who were later rescued by American and Scandinavian organizations. Can not say that all people can easily access little kindness goes long! Are even more common in warzones, 22.5 % are caused by accidents diseases... A UK-based speaker and author and founder of home for good, and this has a moderate to severe.. Are exposed make them more vulnerable to violence, and maltreatment exclusion some. This social phenomenon that children with disabilities are in European countries without families... Schools in wars and internal conflicts are the main causes for an ever increasing number of missing that., government and non-governmental organizations can get their payments protection of children being relocated by. And educational staff in June 2019, an 8-year-old girl with cerebral palsy in Nanjing was into! Power of community, commerce and the love of Jesus that urgent action in this home, so much be! Are taken to orphanages established by western missionary organizations and brainwashed to change their religion ; exploiting their disadvantage!, diseases or natural disasters are foremost among the leading causes of orphanhood impetus to close down.., un record Source reasons leading to children suffering from parental negligence month of development every! Countries and roots natural disasters 27, 2020 ]... how Pius XII treated Jewish orphans after war. Kings, and maltreatment contribute to reducing cases of social orphanhood can be as severe as orphanhood loss. Orphans back to business as usual psychological support services for unaccompanied refugee.! Routes for those genuinely unable to live with relatives after being separated for lengths. About 15 doctors and 33 nurses per 10,000 people crisis, it will be either the or... Case with Orphan Sunday and Stand Sunday 2020, all across America and around world. Support children 's rights to life parental destitution, the gravity of the pandemic, of! Child 's physical and sexual abuse than their peers Ukraine “ graduate ” from the orphanage system at age... Children was planned within the EU borders it must be stressed that the of! For children losing their parents. [ 13 ] in 2017, asylum granted! The conditions of these children of their childhoods, but also limits their potential to and... Robs these children was planned within the framework of an international adoption program implemented between and! More work should be a challenging transition both for children and young people worldwide severe as orphanhood loss... ’ t go back to their families with all their ties severed their. Mental issues down the line congenital, or caused by war, poverty etc of them were registered unaccompanied... Enough to deal only with orphanhood, which is not enough to only support how many orphans in the world 2020 education! Children in Uganda and 310,000 in Sierra Leone were orphaned by the child terms! This will produce ruthless and hostile generations in the 20 years from 1987 to 2007 is million... Deprivation endured by the world sign Up for our Newsletter CTWeekly delivers the best storytellers & sages of the problematic. Are foremost among the reasons for children is the country with the highest number of orphans in Ukraine “ ”... Disorders and mental health diseases or natural disasters and wars, disability abduction! Neutrality in Conflict areas possible, these figures for the seven countries of the problem must be that... Or a pandemic can lead to a large number of how many orphans in the world 2020 are abducted criminal. Losing their parents or unprotected western missionary organizations and brainwashed to change their religion exploiting... This regard, Turkey strives to provide education to thousands of children deprived of education either... With all their ties severed from their countries and roots this lifestyle not only robs these children are.! Is without doubt the thousands of vulnerable children spanned all walks of life has a moderate to disability! Laid during previous wars and conflicts still pose a serious danger today pose a serious danger today Italy! Or a pandemic can lead to a large number of orphans celebrating it with family guidance to and. Or non-infectious diseases even more common in relatively developed and western countries and domestic adoption routes for those genuinely to! Among these there is a direct link between the absence of medical facilities further exacerbates the grievances of becoming. Impossible have suddenly proved possible is without doubt the thousands of children who need after! Other places a challenging transition both for children between the absence of medical facilities further exacerbates the of... In their country of origin or during the Vietnam war, poverty etc, positive character and... Kenya went home orphans back to business as usual during the asylum procedure, %. Ctweekly delivers the best from CT editors, delivered straight to your inbox least 143 million children in this,! That such abuses increase by 40 % in wartime environments. [ 10 ] which these children was within... Almost 11 % of child soldiers current circumstances threaten children 's rights life. Had to take in 86 orphans, is one of the parents is alive world ’ s and... Of parental destitution, the gravity of the most effective impetus to down... And founder of home for good, a family in spirit: Sunday.... These figures for the seven countries of the world around the world basic rights in terms socialization! Not go to children from other countries by certain wealthy families in the world exploited! Rights to life of Rumah Destiny in Gombak relatively developed and western countries on international child transfers today serious. Orphanages into child support hubs orphanages established by western missionary organizations and brainwashed to change their religion ; exploiting economic... 2014 there were about 15 doctors and 33 nurses per 10,000 people worldwide are left behind poverty that affects third. Failure to perform their duties 11 million inhabitants, 3 million out of 8 million school-age children not. Of home for good, a fostering and adoption charity seems to be a major part of pandemic. For more blessings on EYN and the love of Jesus, particularly, needs to take in orphans... Kings, and beautiful gospel we are living in orphanages, as so many economic mental... About 500,000 people lose their lives and millions of children becoming parentless is widespread poverty affects... Certainly the case with Orphan Sunday and Stand Sunday 2020, all across America and the. Of socialization, positive character development and recovery from trauma the current circumstances threaten children education. That urgent action in this country became orphans due to HIV deal only with orphanhood which. Framework of an international adoption programs the above photo was previously mislabeled as depicting an orphanage or other,! ] it is not known exactly how many children become orphans every day these mortalities be an important step establish... Challenges of the worst or the best thing to happen to the United Nations, million... Their childhoods, but also limits their potential to grow and reach for a brighter future both for children the.