naval fire control

In the early 1900's an improvement was brought about by marking the position of the target on paper as it moved along its course (by measuring distance and direction from ship to target) from which it was possible to determine the approximate course and future position of the target. Almost all of the computer's inputs and outputs were by synchro torque transmitters and receivers. Another factor which had to be taken into consideration to obtain accurate fire was the inclination of the gun caused by the roll and pitch of the ship's deck. Other versions of the Mark 34 GWS are used by foreign Navies as well as the US Coast Guard with each configuration having its own unique camera and / or gun system. It consisted of a simple telescope containing a pair of crosshairs, and was mounted in such a way that the line of sight could be moved with respect to the axis of the gun to correct for some of the factors which affect the solution of the fire control problem. The explanatory drawings of the system show how it works, but are wildly different in physical appearance from the actual internal mechanisms, perhaps intentionally so. Part of the design changes that defined the Mark 1A were a re-thinking of how to best use these special coordinate converters; the coordinate converter ("vector solver") was eliminated. Asahi's chief gunnery officer, Hiroharu Kato (later Commander of Combined Fleet), experimented with the first director system of fire control, using speaking tube (voicepipe) and telephone communication from the spotters high on the mast to his position on the bridge where he performed the range and deflection calculations, and from his position to the 12-inch (305 mm) gun turrets forward and astern. Toward the end of the nineteenth century, a sight telescope was developed by a Navy Lieutenant. In order to control such a missile it is necessary to know the relative positions of missile and target at all times, and to be able to effect appropriate alterations to the missile's course from a remote position. The rotations of the drum were synchronized with the pings from an active sonar set, and the stylus was connected to the receiver and twitched when an echo was received. The last US ship to receive the system, USS Port Royal was commissioned in July 1994.[35]. Gun lead angles meant that gun-stabilizing commands differed from those needed to keep the director's sights stable. The situation for naval fire control was more complex because of the need to control the firing of several guns at once. With fuze time set into the shell, it was hoped that it would explode near enough to the target to destroy it with the shock wave and shrapnel. It transmits sound waves which reflect back to the ship after hitting an underwater object. The linear-rate system is used as the primary means for control of 5-inch dual purpose guns for both surface and antiaircraft fire. The key element for fire control against a submerged submarine was a British invention called the chemical recorder. If the target remained on a straight-line course at a constant speed (and in the case of aircraft, constant rate of change of altitude ("rate of climb"), the predictions became accurate and, with further computation, gave correct values for the gun lead angles and fuze setting. From such a humble beginning developed the intricate and powerful weapons of today which certainly aren't for "entertainment.". It includes historical preface, principles of radar, optics, targeting, range tables, spotting and more. With radar, targets could be seen and hit accurately at night, and through weather. Naval ships are armed with weapons other than those designed for use against surface targets. It also uses a Remote Optical Sighting system which uses a TV camera with a telephoto zoom lens mounted on the mast and each of the illuminating radars. Lockheed Electronics produced a prototype with AN/SPQ-9 radar fire control in 1965. Rangefinder telescopes on a separate mounting measured the distance to the target. 2. patton610. In September 1941, the first rectangular Mark 4 Fire-control radar antenna was mounted on a Mark 37 Director,[24] and became a common feature on USN Directors by mid 1942. The Mark 33 GFCS used a Mark 10 Rangekeeper, analog fire-control computer. |date=}}The situation for naval fire control was more complex due of the need to control the firing of several guns at once. This let to the development of the rangekeeper, a device which automatically corrects for changes in target range. [23] Sailors would stand around a box measuring 62 by 38 by 45 inches (1.57 by 0.97 by 1.14 m). The Director Officer also had a slew sight used to quickly point the director towards a new target. The purpose of this series of instruction sheets is to introduce you to some of the many things you will encounter in your work as a Fire Control Technician. Concisely, the target's movement was a vector, and if that didn't change, the generated range, bearing, and elevation were accurate for up to 30 seconds. [18] The USN never considered the Mark 33 to be a satisfactory system, but wartime production problems, and the added weight and space requirements of the Mark 37 precluded phasing out the Mark 33: Although superior to older equipment, the computing mechanisms within the range keeper ([Mark 10]) were too slow, both in reaching initial solutions on first picking up a target and in accommodating frequent changes in solution caused by target maneuvers. On Sept. 12, at the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico, a new frontier in Navy Integrated Fire Control-Counter Air (NIFC-CA) was achieved. [e], In a typical World War II British ship the fire control system connected the individual gun turrets to the director tower (where the sighting instruments were) and the analogue computer in the heart of the ship. [29] Its target solution time was less than 2 seconds after Mark 35 radar "Lock on". Shipborne guns … You will learn more about the various components of a fire control system, how they perform their jobs, and their application in surface, antiaircraft, antisubmarine, torpedo, rocket and guided missile fire control systems. Gun sights introduced early in the nineteenth century consisted of fixed front and rear sights mounted so that the line of sight across their tips was parallel to the bore of the gun. [27] This gave the United States Navy a major advantage in World War II, as the Japanese did not develop radar or automated fire control to the level of the US Navy and were at a significant disadvantage.[26]. It then transmits orders to the gun turrets, which are equipped with automatic equipment to train and elevate the guns in accordance with the orders received from the rangekeeper. The housing for the gyro rotor rotates at a low speed, on the order of 18 rpm. US Naval Fire Control, 1918 Byron Angel (byron@trident-usa.com) has extracted the chapter on Fire Control from Elementary Naval Ordnance and Gunnery , by Lieutenant H. C. Ramsey USN (Boston: Little, Brown and Co.), 1918. Many improvements in firearms were required before guns became a useful weapon. If something is not clear to you, ask about it, because there is much to be learned, and it is important that you fully understand each lesson before proceeding to the next. Early Fire Control Developments (continued). The attack plotter displays on a screen a picture of the movement of own ship and target, and may be used to solve the fire control problem graphically in case of failure of the attack director. To accomplish this, guided missile fire control systems include components carried by the missile which receive and carry out directions received from radar and computing equipment on the ground. The antisubmarine fire control system on board the general purpose destroyer (the most common non-specialized submarine fighter) normally consists of the following units: (1) the sonar equipment, which transmits and receives the sound waves to locate the target; (2) the sonar range recorder, which automatically records the range received from the sonar equipment, and passes this information on to (3) the attack director, which also receives target bearing information from the sonar, ship's bearing from the gyro and ship's speed from the pitometer log. The gun director was mounted in a large yoke, and the whole director was stabilized in crosslevel (the yoke's pivot axis). Towards the end of World War II, the invention of the VT proximity fuze eliminated the need to use the fuze time calculation and its possible error. Battleships and heavy cruisers are equipped with secondary batteries consisting of dual purpose guns, which are used against aircraft as well as surface targets. By the end of 1945 the equipment had run through 92 modifications—almost twice the total number of directors of that type which were in the fleet on December 7, 1941. For example, many captains under long range gun attack would make violent maneuvers to "chase salvos." manual. To do so, accurately, when the fire control system was initially installed, a surveyor, working in several stages, transferred the position of the gun director into Plot so the stable element's own internal mechanism was properly aligned to the director. The design of the computer was based on a re-thinking of the fire control problem; it was regarded quite differently. The result was the turret's bearing and elevation orders (LOF). [1] It then could calculate an offset angle and change of range between the target's present position (LOS) and future position at the end of the projectile's time of flight. Early guns were very crude and unpredictable, often more dangerous to the gunner than the enemy. [8] During World War II, servomechanisms (called "power drives" in the US Navy) were developed that allowed the guns to automatically steer to the rangekeeper's commands with no manual intervention, though pointers still worked even if automatic control was lost. The weight, its scale, and frame are mounted on the shaft of a synchro torque receiver fed with ship's course data from the gyro compass, and compensated by a differential synchro driven by the housing-rotator motor. Four special coordinate converters, each with a mechanism in part like that of a traditional computer mouse, converted the received corrections into target motion vector values. The knowledge level required for proper understanding of "Fire Control Fundamentals" and its application to Navy equipment is Unfortunately, this process of inferring the target motion vector required a few seconds, typically, which might take too long. On a battleship, the director was protected by 1 1⁄2 inches (38 mm) of armor, and weighs 21 tons. Cruisers have fire control installations similar to those of battleships, except that there are only two directors for the dual purpose secondary battery. The conventional projectile fired from a gun, or the barrage rocket, is committed to a given course at the time of firing. This GFCS was an intermediate-range, anti-aircraft gun fire-control system. patton610. Copyright © 2013, Maritime Park Association. It performs the same task as a human gunner firing a weapon, but attempts to do so faster and more accurately. As you learn more about fire control, you will realize that the Navy is only as strong as its fire power, and in order for that fire power to be effective, it must be accurately controlled. On the following sheets you will learn something about the fire control systems used to control antiaircraft, and antisubmarine weapons, torpedoes and guided missiles. [1] It could also automatically track the target by controlling the director's bearing power drive. These occupations may require additional education, training or experience. "Basic Electronics" Centralized naval fire control systems were first developed around the time of World War I. Whereas the Mark 1/1A computations for the stabilizing component of gun orders had to be approximations, they were theoretically exact in the Mark 47 computer, computed by an electrical resolver chain. Central aiming from a gun director has a minor complication in that the guns are often far enough away from the director to require parallax correction so they aim correctly. In the early days each gun crew worked out its own sight settings and the gun was fired as soon as that gun crew had corrected the aim of their particular piece. According to the story he added an ingredient which caused his mixture to explode, blowing the top off his kettle. Version 3.00, THE PROJECTILE IN FLIGHT - EXTERIOR BALLISTICS, HITTING A MOVING TARGET FROM A MOVING SHIP, AN INTRODUCTION TO FIRE CONTROL EQUIPMENT OPERATION, TYPICAL ANTIAIRCRAFT FIRE CONTROL SYSTEMS, INTRODUCTION TO ANTISUBMARINE FIRE CONTROL, INTRODUCTION TO ROCKET AND GUIDED MISSILE FIRE CONTROL, HOW YOU WILL LEARN ABOUT FIRE CONTROL EQUIPMENT. this text was captured by optical character recognition. This gave American forces a technological advantage in World War II against the Japanese who did not develop remote power control for their guns; both the US Navy and Japanese Navy used visual correction of shots using shell splashes or air bursts, while the US Navy augmented visual spotting with radar. You will learn more about these components and their operation a little later. Clinginess is not a discipline issue, at least not in the sense of correcting a wrongdoing. Visual range measurement (of both target and shell splashes) was difficult prior to availability of radar. Moreover, the stable element and computer, instead of being contained in the director housing were installed below deck where they were less vulnerable to attack and less of a jeopardy to a ship's stability. Fire controlman (abbreviated as FC) is a United States Navy occupational rating.. Fire controlmen provide system employment recommendations; perform organizational and intermediate maintenance on digital computer equipment, subsystems, and systems; operate and maintain combat and weapons direction systems, surface-to-air and surface-to-surface missile systems, and gun fire control … Installations similar to FT-Fire control technician will be given plenty of opportunity to ask questions and make comments about you! Control devices on the target inaccurate except at close range identify target prediction... Occupations, click on the type of ship carrying them director tower, operators trained telescopes! 33 GFCS was a rotating drum of chemically treated paper with a stylus, resembling nothing so much as ``... Attack exercises prior to hostilities single phase, and each has the turret 's bearing power drive ; were! A Navy fire Controlman takes place at naval station Great Lakes outside of Chicago, Illinois the! 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Platform simultaneously, while both the firing guns and target are moving, and the `` stable Element and. For more information about anti-aircrafte, torpedo control, anti-submarine and missile guidance information... Line of sight simulated air attack exercises prior to availability of radar, which control all or of! Prediction characteristics could be done optically with the gun director is located high the. Its desired end point, when dials were read originally designated the Mark 1A fire control bearing. Treated paper with a stylus, resembling nothing so much as a human gunner firing single... A sonar transducer, is equipped with torpedo tubes which can be calculated naval fire control observing in! These computers, which control all or part of an upgrade from the stable Element kept optical... All this information, the US Navy rangekeeper and the other way, the 4!

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