133 Views. Spain's economic and demographic recovery had begun slowly in the last decades of the Habsburg reign, as was evident from the growth of its trading convoys and the much more rapid growth of illicit trade during the period. The combined empires were simply too big to go unchallenged by European rivals. BBC School Radio. Napoleon forced Ferdinand to abdicate on 6 May. While Cossacks came from the Southern Urals, another wave of Russians came by the Arctic Ocean.  They presented gifts of gold, silver, porcelain and silk; in return, received such novelties as ostriches, zebras, camels, ivory and giraffes. Observances include Day of the Dead, Carnival, Holy Week, Corpus Christi, Epiphany, and national saints' days, such as the Virgin of Guadalupe in Mexico. His ships with the frozen crews, including Captain Willoughby and his journal, were found by Russian fishermen a year later. There was hope in Madrid that the Netherlands might finally be reincorporated into the Empire, and after the defeat of Denmark the Protestants in Germany seemed crushed. In the 18th century, Spain was concerned with increasing Russian and British influence in the Pacific Northwest of North America and sent several expeditions to explore and further shore up Spanish claims to the region.. Balboa went ahead and, before noon September 25, he saw on the horizon an undiscovered sea, becoming the first European to have seen or reached the Pacific from the New World. ), Maize and manioc were introduced into Africa in the 16th century by the Portuguese. On 20 May 1498, they arrived at Calicut.  Its rival Castile laid claim to the Canary Islands (1402) and retook territory from the Moors in 1462. As the Caribbean became a draw for Spanish settlement and as Columbus and his extended Genoese family failed to be recognized as officials worthy of the titles they held, there was unrest among Spanish settlers.  In the Americas, meanwhile, economic policies enacted under the Bourbons had different impacts in different regions. In turn, the crown's attempt to tighten its control over its colonial markets in the Americas led to further conflict with other European powers who were vying for access to them.  The Nootka Crisis (1789–1791) nearly brought Spain and Britain to war. Despite growing doubts, Columbus refused to accept that he had not reached the Indies. King John II of Portugal was not pleased with the arrangement, feeling that it gave him far too little land—preventing him from reaching India, his main goal. The Spanish considered their war with the Muslims in Southeast Asia an extension of the Reconquista, a centuries-long campaign to retake and rechristianize the Spanish homeland which was invaded by the Muslims of the Umayyad Caliphate. In 1659–65 Kurbat Ivanov was the next head of Anadyrsky ostrog after Semyon Dezhnyov. Admiral Luis de Córdova y Córdova captured two British convoys totaling seventy-nine ships, including a fleet of fifty-five merchantmen and frigates in the Action of 9 August 1780. The Magellan-Elcano circumnavigation—the first circumnavigation of the Earth—laid the foundation for the Pacific oceanic empire of Spain and began the Spanish colonization of the Philippines. Indeed, the New World colonies only began to yield a substantial part of the Crown's revenues with the establishment of mines such as that of Potosí (Bolivia) and Zacatecas (Mexico) both started in 1546. He intended to sail to the East Indies, but near the Cape of Good Hope his ship was diverted to west by a storm, and landed in the present day state of Santa Catarina (southern Brazil), on 5 January 1504. Further, the ineffective Spanish Habsburg government took no action to improve them. Freed from effective French opposition, Spain attained the apogee of its might and territorial reach in the period 1559–1643. Francis's defeat in 1544 led to the annulment of the alliance with the Protestants, and Charles took advantage of the opportunity. Within elite families then peninsular-born Spaniards and criollos were often kin.. , In 1643 Kurbat Ivanov led a group of Cossacks from Yakutsk to the south of the Baikal Mountains and discovered Lake Baikal, visiting its Olkhon Island. The Spanish viceroy retreated hastily to the hills when defeated by a small British force. The Great Age of Exploration 1400 1550 Documentary The Great Age of Exploration 1400 1550 Documentary von DCE House Page 12/26. The settlement gave spoils to those who had backed a Habsburg for the Spanish monarchy, ceding European territory of the Spanish Netherlands, Naples, Milan, and Sardinia to Austria; Sicily and parts of Milan to the Duchy of Savoy, and Gibraltar and Menorca to the Kingdom of Great Britain. The Great Age of Exploration 1400 1550 , Christopher Colu... by Daisy Hernandez — 756 The Great Age of Exploration 1400 1550 , Christopher Colu... by Daisy Hernandez — 756 Bring your visual storytelling to the next level. The English naval commander Francis Drake sailed along the coast in 1579 north of Cabrillo's landing site while circumnavigating the world. The fighting culminated in the Battle of Gravelines, off the coast of Flanders. Hello Select ... and filmmaker. On August 10, 1519, they departed from Seville with a fleet of five ships—the flagship Trinidad under Magellan's command, San Antonio, Concepcion, Santiago and Victoria, the first being a caravel, and all others rated as carracks or "naus"—with a crew of about 237 men from several nations, with the goal of reaching the Maluku Islands by travelling west, trying to reclaim it under Spain's economic and political sphere.. Europeans brought cattle, horses, and sheep to the New World, and from the New World Europeans received tobacco, potatoes and maize. With three ships and one hundred and eighty men they landed near Ecuador and sailed to Tumbes, finding the place destroyed. The English fleet was at Plymouth and followed the Armada up the Channel. Charles II was childless and weak ruler, known as "The Bewitched."  Senegal and Cape Verde Peninsula were reached in 1445 and in 1446, Álvaro Fernandes pushed on almost as far as present-day Sierra Leone. He returned to New Guinea and sailed northeast, where he sighted the Marshall Islands and the Admiralty Islands, but again was surprised by the winds, which brought him a third time to the Moluccas. , The voyages had a significant and lasting effect on the organization of a maritime network, utilizing and creating nodes and conduits in its wake, thereby restructuring international and cross-cultural relationships and exchanges. See, Burkholder, Mark A. After a few decades, hostilities between the Portuguese and Chinese ceased and in 1557 the Chinese allowed the Portuguese to occupy Macau. The French had established an empire in northern North America and took some islands in the Caribbean. Forced to reduce their activities in the Black Sea, and at war with Venice, the Genoese had turned to North African trade of wheat, olive oil (valued also as an energy source) and a search for silver and gold. In 1959, the Spanish territory on the Gulf of Guinea was established with a status similar to the provinces of metropolitan Spain. Spain made a fair recovery during the truce, putting its finances in order and doing much to restore its prestige and stability in the run-up to the last truly great war in which she would play a leading part. Spain agreed to the Peace of the Pyrenees in 1659 that ceded to France the Spanish Netherlands territory of Artois and the northern Catalan county of Roussillon. The crown reducing the taxes on mercury, meaning that a greater volume of pure silver could be refined. Codes regulated the status of individuals and groups in the empire in both the civil and religious spheres, with Spaniards (peninsular- and American-born) monopolizing positions of economic privilege and political power. The Spanish Empire also left a vast cultural and linguistic legacy. Since the Portuguese wanted to keep the line of demarcation of Alcaçovas running east and west along a latitude south of Cape Bojador, a compromise was worked out and incorporated in the Treaty of Tordesillas, dated on 7 June 1494, in which the globe was split into two hemispheres dividing Spanish and Portuguese claims. This type of sail also inspired the Arabs to their west and the Polynesians to their east to develop the lateen and crab claw sail, respectively. That realization subsequently led to the creation of reports from the various regions of the empire, the relaciones geográficas. He reasoned that the trade winds of the Pacific might move in a gyre as the Atlantic winds did.  However, the land was too far east for the Castilians to claim under the Treaty of Tordesillas, but the discovery created Castilian (Spanish) interest, with a second voyage by Pinzon in 1508 (an expedition that coasted the northern coast to the Central American coastal mainland, in search of a passage to the East) and a voyage in 1515–16 by a navigator of the 1508 expedition, Juan Díaz de Solís. In the mid-16th century the Tsardom of Russia conquered the Tatar khanates of Kazan and Astrakhan, thus annexing the entire Volga Region and opening the way to the Ural Mountains. Spain actively supported the thirteen colonies throughout the American Revolutionary War, beginning in 1776 by jointly funding Roderigue Hortalez and Company, a trading company that provided critical military supplies, throughout financing the final Siege of Yorktown in 1781 with a collection of gold and silver from Havana. 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